The view of Mount Saint Helens from the summit of Mount Adams on July 4, 1976.
On the 200th anniversary of our country’s birth my cousin Dale and I joined one of the last mass climbs of Mount Adams in south-central Washington. I left from work on the Friday afternoon, drove to Yakima to pick him up, and we went to a campground outside Trout Lake to spend the night. Of course the excitement and the noise of all the other campers kept us awake all night. I don’t remember getting any sleep at all.
We were rousted out for the climb around 3:00 in the morning. We received some orientation and instructions and lined up to begin the climb. One of the instructions was to stay in line and not to pass those ahead of us. We were young and strong. Many of those ahead of us were neither, so the temptation to violate that rule was strong.
We reached tree-line just before dawn, and that morning provided one of the most spectacular views I will ever see. We watched the ghostly pale peak of Mount Saint Helens emerge from the night, turning raspberry pink, then dazzling white. Before it erupted, Saint Helens was nearly perfectly symmetrical. As we strapped on our crampons and struggled to keep our places in line, we watched Mount Saint Helens in the distance, a graceful and beautiful mountain that later proved to be powerful and dangerous. Continue reading
Posted in Cars, Columbia Basin, Concertina or Squeezebox, Disaster, Family History, Geology, History, Mount Adams, Mount Saint Helens, Mountaineering, Natural Disaster, Othello, Railroads, Volcano, Washington
Tagged Bicentennial, Concertina Blowout, Eastern Washington, Everett, Family History, Geology, Graphic Artist, History, Ice Axe, Milwaukee Road, Mount Adams, Mount Saint Helens, Nature, Othello, Seattle, Spokane, State Patrol, Stevens Pass, Taunton, Washington, Wheatstone English Concertina, Whitworth College, Yakima
A two-horse-power ferry provided passage across the Columbia River at White Bluffs.
Drive down any freeway in the state, and you’ll see the same dull gray pavement, with tarry black repairs. The roads look the same on both sides of the mountains and whether they are on dry land or bridges. We’ve come to take these roads and bridges for granted, to the point where we can estimate to within minutes just how long a trip ought to take. But it wasn’t always so.
After they offed the Astorians, the Hudsons Bay Company established routes that provided for the safe distribution of trade goods and transportation of furs gathered over an entire year. In auspicious places, the English built forts to store the furs that came from far north in what is now British Columbia, and from the Snake River country and Montana. Continue reading
Posted in Bridges, Cars, Columbia Basin, Columbia River, Ferries, Hanford, Hanford Atomic Energy Reservation, History, Native Americans, Railroads, Transportation, Travel, Washington, White Bluffs
Tagged Big Eddy, Bridges, Central Washington, Columbia River, Culture, Eastern Washington, Education, Ferries, Ferry, Hanford, Hanford Reservation, Highways, History, Milwaukee Road, Native Americans, Photography, Puget Sound, Railroads, Vantage, Vernita, Wanapum Dam, Washington, Washington State, White Bluffs
Skiers dressed more casually in the late 1940s. A line forms for the rope-tow to the top of the Snoqualmie Pass ski hill in the background.
Wilderness skiing at Snoqualmie Pass began in the 1920s, and as it gained in popularity, the Seattle Parks Department sought a permit to open a designated ski hill at the summit. Tourists took the Milwaukee Road trains to the summit for picnics and hiking in the summertime, and the railroad provided transportation to the ski slopes in the winter. The convenience of automobile access to the summit led to a decline in reliance on the train for transportation. A private enterprise applied with the Forest Service to construct a rope-tow, and by 1937 the Snoqualmie Summit Ski Resort was in operation.
Walls of snow line the shoulders of the highway at the summit of Snoqualmie Pass. The state rest area and the ski areas were constructed in the 1930s.
The pass got a lot more snow in those days. Plowing the highway created canyons of icy snow. Intrepid skiers lined up shoulder to shoulder as they waited for the rope-tow to the top of the slopes. Continue reading
Posted in Cars, Family History, History, Railroads, Skiing, Sports, Travel, Washington
Tagged Central Washington, Culture, Family History, Fashion, History, Milwaukee Road, Nature, Railroads, Recreation, Seattle, Second World War, Skiing, Snoqualmie Pass, Snow, Snowplows, Sports, Transportation, Washington, Washington State, World War II
The Vernita Ferry approaches the north bank of the Columbia River in this 1959 photograph from the State Archives.
A nice snowball fight at Christmas could be a welcome break after a year in the desert.
To reach the Glenwood Market you sometimes had to park in the roadway and scramble over a mountain of snow.
The Danielson house in Glenwood stood south of town. It burned down several years ago.
The old school at Glenwood provided years of education before it was replaced by the more modern facilities local children attend.
The reasons for my father’s decision to abandon the Danielson Ranch on Crab Creek have never been entirely clear to me. I remember that when I asked him about it, he was very close lipped. Myself, I was ready to get away from the Central Washington weather by the time I went to college. No more of these sweltering iron-colored skies for months on end, Enough of these months of boringly gorgeous sunsets and clear nights so starry you could hike the hills without a flashlight even when there was no moon. My father lived in Glenwood long enough to marry and have children, but he moved back to Othello to take advantage of irrigation water from the Columbia Basin Project in the early 1950s.
I’m sure I’ll revisit the reasoning behind my father’s choice another time. But it’s the holiday season, and for me that always brings to mind my grandparents and their old home in the Glenwood valley of Klickitat County. These were the only grandparents I knew, since my father’s folks had both passed on by the time I could crawl. My mother’s parents seemed incredibly ancient from the very beginning, as if they were the living remnants of the rich family history they represented. And if I have any explanation for this urge to write down these stories, it probably ought to be blamed on my Grandfather Herman, who labored over his antique typewriter, one-eyed, pecking out the letters one by one and filling up pages of uneven type that eventually became several volumes of local and family history about life in Klickitat County. Recognizing his skills as a story teller and nurturing my own taste for history, I made it a point to find time to ask him questions whenever we visited, and I was richly rewarded with personal stories and the outlines of a family’s fortunes on the Washington frontier. I’ll be passing some of this on in later articles. I regret that I didn’t inherit more than a few of his marvelous old photographs, so I won’t be able to post clear copies of them to illustrate his tales. Most of the photographs I am publishing came from my father’s collection and were probably his own.
My favorite Christmases as a boy were those we had at Glenwood. Our home place outside Othello might get heavy frosts and the occasional dusting of snow, but Glenwood seemed like it always had a white Christmas. Continue reading
Posted in Cars, Columbia Basin, Family History, Glenwood, History, Irrigation, Native Americans, Saddle Mountain, Washington
Tagged Bickelton, Central Washington, Christmas, Cold War, Columbia Basin Project, Columbia River, Crab Creek, Desert, Eastern Washington, Family, Ford, Glenwood, Goldendale, Hanford Reservation, Highway 24, Highway 241, Highway 26, History, Irrigation, Klickitat County, McGee Ranch, Native Americans, Nature, Othello, Rattlesnake Ridge, Saddle Mountain, Satus Pass, Silver Dollar Cafe, Sunnyside, Vernita ferry, Washington, Yakima, Yamhill County Company
An unidentified traveller in an unidentified location. As the age of the motor car increased demand for petroleum, the industry looked for resources throughout Washington, including in the Columbia Basin.
An information circular published by State Geologist Raymond Lasmanis in 1983 declares that Washington’s first gas and oil resources were spotted on the west side of the Olympic Peninsula as oil seeps in the sea cliffs and mud cones spouting natural gas. That was in 1881. With more than 16,000 feet of basalt flows covering potential petroleum deposits in the Columbia Basin, nobody was really expecting to locate anything there. It was farmland that appeared to be most valuable in that area, and that meant water would have to be supplied.
The early 1900s saw some pretty heroic efforts to bring water to what could become productive farmland. Canals were the favorite projects, luring money from investors from far afield. But in 1913 the Conservative Land Investment Company of Spokane began drilling a well for water on the north slopes of Rattlesnake Ridge. They had reached a depth of just over 700 feet when, to their dismay, it wasn’t water that erupted from their hole, but natural gas. They had no way to accurately measure it, so estimates of the flow rate range from 70,000 to as much as 500,000 cubic feet per day, forced out with a pressure of up to 7 pounds per square inch. You might think they would have tried to contain the flow, but instead the gas from that well and several others in the area was simply vented into the air until 1929. By the time commercial production was attempted, the pressure rate had dropped to around 2 pounds per square inch. Even so, over the next dozen years or so, the Rattlesnake Hills wells produced around 1.3 billion cubic feet of gas until it was shut down in 1941 when the Hanford Reservation was created.
With the Rattlesnake Hills field in production, investors began scouting for similar opportunities. Wildcat operations formed to exploit untouched gas fields hidden beneath the basalt.
Donny Boy Number 1 was drilled into the northeast flank of Frenchman Hill, from 1935-1939. The site is near the west end of O'Sullivan Dam. Photograph by Bror Gustaf Norberg.
People’s Gas & Oil Development Company was one of these wildcat enterprises. W. Gale Mathews of Ephrata was hired to run point in acquiring mineral leases. According to a 1974 letter from Floyd Harris, a local old-timer who witnessed the entire process, land owners on the eastern end of Frenchman Hill were offered ten cents an acre and one twelfth of the all oil found in a well drilled on their property. I had to wonder whether Harris was correct in specifying one twelfth of all the oil, since there weren’t many indications that any oil would ever be found in this region. Continue reading
Posted in Cars, Columbia Basin, Frenchman Hill, Geology, History, Saddle Mountain, Washington
Tagged Columbia Basin, Donny Boy Number One, Eastern Washington, Ephrata, Exploration, Frenchman Hill, Geology, George Drumheller, Hanford Reservation, Highway 26, History, Irrigation, Natural Gas, O'Sullivan Dam, Oil, Olympic Peninsula, Othello, Rattlesnake Ridge, Saddle Mountain, San Francisco, USGS, Walla Walla, Washington, Washington State, Wenatchee World, Yakima
Danielson boys got around on horseback.
Oscar Danielson found out that making ends meet on his Lower Crab Creek homestead wasn’t the easiest thing to do. From the beginning, Oscar kept meticulous notes about his finances, even before leaving Renton to build his farm. His ledger is filled with minutia, and in addition to mundane expenditures for a growing family, the way the entries are written record Oscar’s assimilation into his new country. In the beginning his notations are mostly in Swedish, but over the course of several years, Oscar adopts more and more English phrases for his entries. Perhaps he had to share the book with a banker who didn’t understand Swedish!
There are a number of local history books that do a great job of describing life on an Eastern Washington homestead. One of them, Laura Tice Lage’s Sagebrush Homesteads actually mentions Oscar and his homestead. Ms. Lage relates a family story, probably learned from my father. In this tale the pioneers have decided they are losing too many crops to a plague of jackrabbits. My grandfather has an experience that demonstrates another unexpected problem concerning rabbits. Out in the field one day, with a young Walter perched on the seat of the buckboard, Oscar spots a jackrabbit. Continue reading
Posted in Archaeology, Cars, Columbia Basin, Crab Creek, Education, Family History, Genealogy and Family History, Geology, Glenwood, History, Horses, Ice Age flood, Immigration, Irrigation, Music, Railroads, Saddle Mountain, Sweden, Washington, World War II
Tagged Army Air Corps, Army Engineers, Cattle ranching, Columbia River, Corfu, Corfu Switchback, Crab Creek, Danielson Dam, Desert, Eastern Washington, Education, Europe, Family History, Flood, Fourth of July celebration, Germans, Glenwood, Great Depression, History, Homestead, Immigration, Irrigation, Kasserine Pass, Klickitat County, Larson Air Field, Milwaukee Road, Mount Adams.Columbia Basin Project, Nature, North Africa, Northern Idaho, Othello School District, Philippines, Red Rock Canyon, Rommel, Saddle Mountain, Saint Mary's, San Francisco World's Fair, Seattle, Second World War, Snow Goose, Sweden, Taunton, Washington, World War II