This Giant Palouse Earthworm was found on Paradise Ridge near Moscow, Idaho, on March 20, 2010. Photo by Karl Umiker of the University of Idaho. Courtesy of HistoryLink.org.
Soon after Washington State College opened at Pullman in 1892, the Washington State Agricultural Experiment Station kicked into gear under its auspices. Rennie Wilson Doane was appointed Assistant Zoologist. He began research on pests that were killing local sugar beets, gathering enough data that by 1900 he was able to publish a report identifying a new species of root lice, Pemphigus betae Doane, and he researched the use of large Atlantic oysters in the waters of Willapa Bay. His marriage in 1898 to Miss Elnora Cooper at McMinnville, Oregon, was front page news in the Pullman Herald.
Doane’s work kept him moving. As he followed country roads to farms and fields around Pullman, he began to notice what looked like the burrows of gigantic worms, sometimes fifteen to twenty feet down from the surface of hills sliced open by road cuts. Intrigued, he dug up several specimens of a huge earthworm, pickled them in alcohol and sent them to the nation’s leading earthworm expert, Frank Smith, a zoologist teaching at the University of Illinois. He assured Smith that the worms were abundant in the area.
While Smith admitted that Doane’s specimens seemed incomplete, he believed there was enough physical evidence to conclude that the giant earthworms represented a previously undiscovered creature, a giant earthworm. In a paper published in March of 1897 in The American Naturalist, Smith announced the discovery of the worm he named Megascolides americanus. The name was meant to establish a somewhat sketchy connection between the Giant Palouse Earthworm and some truly immense worms from Australia. Continue reading
Posted in Biology, Columbia Basin, Education, History, Science, Washington
Tagged Aphids, Australia, Central Washington, Crop Circle, DNA, Earthworms, Eastern Washington, Ellensburg, Endangered Species Act, Environment, Frank Smith, George W. Bush, Giant Palouse Earthworm, History, Idaho, Invasive Species, Lake Chelan, Nature, Oregon, Oysters, Palouse, Pullman, R.W.Doane, Science, Soil Science, Sugar Beets, UFO, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, University of Idaho, University of Illinois, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, Washington State, Washington State College, Willapa Bay, Yaniria Sanchez-de Leon, Zoology
Although Wikipedia describes this image as the steamer John Gates navigating Priest Rapids in 1884, the locality is surely not Priest Rapids, but Rock Island Rapids where the Chelan capsized on her upriver attempt and lost her rudder on her return downriver.
I’ve struggled with where to begin the story of the first steamboat Chelan. It’s a tale with roots in the larger conflicts that made the Northwest of the 1870s such a tragic and violent place. The steamboat wouldn’t even have been built if it were not for the breakout of the Nez Percés under Chief Joseph, but it wasn’t built as a direct result of that conflict. It was a response to another attempt by Native Americans to claim their natural rights and to reclaim their freedom. Even so, that was still only an indirect cause of this steamboat’s birth. It was a result of a murder by renegade Indians, angered by the deaths of their friends and family who were cut to pieces by the gatling gun mounted on a different river steamboat. Yet Chelan wasn’t built because the Perkins died. But all of these events led to the eventual arrest of Chief Moses and the removal of his followers from their land in the Columbia Basin. It was the creation of a new reservation for the Sinkiuse Indians that inspired the army to build the Chelan. The boat was needed as a ferry for crossing the Columbia River on the trail to a newly established fort that would safeguard Moses’ Indians on their new reservation.
As far as I know, no photographs of the steamboat Chelan exist. There are photographs of a later steamboat, built in 1902, which operated on the upper stretch of the Columbia until it was retired in 1910 when freight began moving by rail. The 125 foot sternwheeler was operated by the Columbia & Okanogan Steamboat Company. It was one of four retired steamboats tied to one another at a Wenatchee mooring, that burned in a spectacular fire on July 8, 1915. Continue reading
Posted in Columbia Basin, Crab Creek, Education, History, Native Americans, Saddle Mountain, Washington
Tagged Army, Ben Hutchinson, Bridgeport, Camp Chelan, Cascade Rapids, Central Washington, Charles Maynard, Chelan, Chelan River, Chief Joseph, Chief Moses, Colonel Merriam, Columbia & Okanogan Steamboat Company, Columbia Basin, Columbia River, Crab Creek, Desert, Eastern Washington, Education, Fitzcarraldo, Fort Walla Walla, Foster Creek, Gatling Gun, History, Lake Chelan, Lt. H. B. Larson, Lt. Thomas Symons, Moses Lake, Native Americans, Nez Perces, Perkins Murder, Portage, Portland, Priest Rapids, Railroads, Rock Island Rapids, Rocky Ford, Ron Anglin, Saddle Mountain, Second Regiment of Infantry, Sinkiuse Indians, Snake River, Taunton, The Dalles, Vernita ferry, Wallula, Washington, Washington D. C., Waterville, Wenatchee, Werner Herzog, White Bluffs