The remains of Oscar Danielson’s irrigation pipes lead to his fields and ditches from the site of the Danielson dam.
In a previous post I published a photograph of swimmers perched on the top rail of the irrigation dam Oscar Danielson built to draw water out of the community canal. This canal redirected some of the flow from Crab Creek towards a number of farms or orchards west of the watercourse. Around 1920 Oscar purchased surplus wire-wrapped wooden water pipes from the city of Seattle to tap into the canal, pumping water from the reservoir behind his wooden dam. His single-stroke gas engine is still hidden in the weeds near the ranch he later occupied on the banks of Lower Crab Creek.
Oscar Danielson mows hay in a field watered by the pipes leading from the Danielson dam. The photograph is probably from the latter half of the 1920s.
The swimmers were part of a larger crowd gathered at the dam for a Fourth of July celebration. It was a custom amongst the farmers and ranchers Continue reading
Posted in Anthropology, Celebration, Columbia Basin, Crab Creek, Disaster, Family History, Farming, Fourth of July, Genealogy and Family History, Geology, Grant County, History, Irrigation, Native Americans, Natural Disaster, Washington
Tagged A. J. Splawn, Celebrations, Central Washington, Chief Moses, Crab Creek, Culture, Eastern Washington, Education, Family History, Farming, Highway 26, History, Irrigation, Kamiakin, Low Gap, Moses Lake, Native Americans, Nature, Oscar Danielson, Photography, Saddle Mountain, Scablands, Seattle, Washington State
Weeping Willow and Loansome Hart left photographs of themselves inside a banjo ukulele, as a gentle “Remember Us.”
My family has long had a close relationship to the making of music. If you go back far enough in my mother’s family, we were probably connected to the German composer of operas and organ music, Johann Georg Kühnhausen, whose Matthäus-Passion (Saint Matthew’s Passion) is still occasionally performed. But for the most part, we played much more informally.
My father and several of his buddies toured around Eastern Washington in the 1930s and 1940s, playing dances in little towns like Othello and White Bluffs as the Five Jives. Two of his brothers were members of a long-lasting semi-professional band that formed under Steve Laughery in Moses Lake and which continued to tour the west after Laughery died in a landslide. The memory of these bands survive in some of the artifacts we still possess, some sheet music inscribed with “Five Jives” and a couple of vinyl albums from the Many Sounds of Nine, my uncles’ band. I have written before about the old violin my father used to play, passed on to him from one of my mother’s uncles. I use it to play dance music in a couple of contra-dance bands in Northwestern Washington now.
There are no markings on the instrument to indicate how old it it. The name “Elton” is stamped on the metal resonator ring.
Last month I found a very interesting instrument, seemingly meant for me. It had a peculiar back story and it fit a special niche in a musician’s repertoire. For there will always be a time when you want to create the most annoying sound you can musically make. In this case, with a banjo ukulele. Continue reading
Posted in Art, Bellingham, Cats, Columbia Basin, Concertina or Squeezebox, Dogs, Education, Family History, Fiddle, Folk, Genealogy and Family History, Germany, Guitar, History, Horses, Illustration, Luthier, Music, Othello, Pets, Ukulele, Violin, Washington, White Bluffs
Tagged Art, Banjo, Banjo Ukulele, Bellingham, Bodhran, Central Washington, Concertina, Contra Dance, David Nerad, Eastern Washington, Education, Elton, Family History, Fiddle, Five Jives, Guitar, History, Johann Georg Kühnhausen, Loansome Hart, Many Sounds of Nine, Margie Katz, Mike Schway, Montgomery Ward, Moses Lake, Othello, Paramount, Photography, Piano, Randy Mohr, Rolling Stones, Steve Laughery, Van Halen, Violin, Ward Beebe, Washington, Weeping Willow, Weimaraner, White Bluffs
Although Wikipedia describes this image as the steamer John Gates navigating Priest Rapids in 1884, the locality is surely not Priest Rapids, but Rock Island Rapids where the Chelan capsized on her upriver attempt and lost her rudder on her return downriver.
I’ve struggled with where to begin the story of the first steamboat Chelan. It’s a tale with roots in the larger conflicts that made the Northwest of the 1870s such a tragic and violent place. The steamboat wouldn’t even have been built if it were not for the breakout of the Nez Percés under Chief Joseph, but it wasn’t built as a direct result of that conflict. It was a response to another attempt by Native Americans to claim their natural rights and to reclaim their freedom. Even so, that was still only an indirect cause of this steamboat’s birth. It was a result of a murder by renegade Indians, angered by the deaths of their friends and family who were cut to pieces by the gatling gun mounted on a different river steamboat. Yet Chelan wasn’t built because the Perkins died. But all of these events led to the eventual arrest of Chief Moses and the removal of his followers from their land in the Columbia Basin. It was the creation of a new reservation for the Sinkiuse Indians that inspired the army to build the Chelan. The boat was needed as a ferry for crossing the Columbia River on the trail to a newly established fort that would safeguard Moses’ Indians on their new reservation.
As far as I know, no photographs of the steamboat Chelan exist. There are photographs of a later steamboat, built in 1902, which operated on the upper stretch of the Columbia until it was retired in 1910 when freight began moving by rail. The 125 foot sternwheeler was operated by the Columbia & Okanogan Steamboat Company. It was one of four retired steamboats tied to one another at a Wenatchee mooring, that burned in a spectacular fire on July 8, 1915. Continue reading
Posted in Columbia Basin, Crab Creek, Education, History, Native Americans, Saddle Mountain, Washington
Tagged Army, Ben Hutchinson, Bridgeport, Camp Chelan, Cascade Rapids, Central Washington, Charles Maynard, Chelan, Chelan River, Chief Joseph, Chief Moses, Colonel Merriam, Columbia & Okanogan Steamboat Company, Columbia Basin, Columbia River, Crab Creek, Desert, Eastern Washington, Education, Fitzcarraldo, Fort Walla Walla, Foster Creek, Gatling Gun, History, Lake Chelan, Lt. H. B. Larson, Lt. Thomas Symons, Moses Lake, Native Americans, Nez Perces, Perkins Murder, Portage, Portland, Priest Rapids, Railroads, Rock Island Rapids, Rocky Ford, Ron Anglin, Saddle Mountain, Second Regiment of Infantry, Sinkiuse Indians, Snake River, Taunton, The Dalles, Vernita ferry, Wallula, Washington, Washington D. C., Waterville, Wenatchee, Werner Herzog, White Bluffs
In my last post I analyzed the crashes of Army Air Force P-39s based at Moses Lake and Ephrata in 1944. The crash record was alarming. Several of the comments I’ve had either through the site or by other means inquired about other aircraft, particularly the P-38. This morning I went through the records again and updated the Google map of crash sites to include all of the recorded crashes from those two bases (except for one Ephrata crash that took place in Sandpoint, Idaho and another that took place in California). I do not have confidence that all of the crashes that actually occurred show up in this data.
In the updated version of the map, I have color coded crashes. Blue remains P-39 crashes, which were the most numerous wrecks; green markers indicate P-38 crashes, which were the second most common. Rather than come up with too many colors, I used yellow to indicate all other aircraft, from single engine spotter planes to heavy bombers.
I have included the sparse data from Ellensburg AAF, which existed for part of 1943 and part of 1944. Most of the wrecks from that field occurred at the airport. Note that the army airfield in Ellensburg is not the same as today’s airport. The abandoned army field is visible in the Google map as traces of the runways in an uncultivated area north of town.
I can’t help but wonder what emotional strain the pilots were going through that summer. In two instances I found pilots who suffered a fatal crash who had previously crashed and survived. One of these, Richard C. Livingston, died in a P-38 crash near Potholes Reservoir a little more than a month after crashing a P-39 at Moses Lake AAB. Another, Glenn W. Ingersoll, first crash landed his P-38 at Moses Lake, then died three days later when his P-38 had a structural failure. For the pilots around them terror of such disasters must have been almost overwhelming. For the residents of the area, a similar fear must have grown as they witnessed these crashes so frequently. Army policy of not allowing journalists to record them could not have curtailed the word-of-mouth distribution of news about the plane crashes.
My thanks to Jim Huffman and Clint Bridges for giving me some guidance in updating this article. It was interesting to read Clint’s conversation with my dad about the day Gene Dyer’s crash took place. There is a link to that discussion in the comments to my last posting.
Posted in Airplanes, Columbia Basin, Death, Disaster, Education, History, Saddle Mountain, Washington, World War II
Tagged Central Washington, Eastern Washington, Ellensburg Army Air Field, Ephrata Army Air Field, History, Moses Lake, Moses Lake Army Air Base, Plane crashes, Saddle Mountain, Second World War, Washington, World War II
Two mechanics crank the handle of a USAAF Bell P-39Q-1-BE Airacobra, at Hamilton Army Airfield, California, in July, 1943. Saga Boy II was flown by Lt.Col. Edward S. Chickering, commander of the 357th Fighter Group. USAAF photograph as published in Wikipedia Commons.
Early Sunday morning, June 11, 1944, Stanley L. Stroud opened the door to the cockpit of his P-39Q fighter trainer for the last time. Stroud lifted off from Moses Lake Army Air Force Base and headed towards the Lower Crab Creek country to practice strafing or firing his cannon. Maybe both. Maybe he was one of the “flyboys” my dad accused of shooting at livestock grazing along the creek.
Stroud probably drained his ammo cans before pulling up out of the valley, headed east. He may even have jettisoned the empty shells, although that practice was frowned upon. We used to collect .50 caliber shells, some of them still live, and other ammunition from time to time as we wandered across the vacant lands along the creek. With his ammo used up, Stroud gunned the engine and pulled back on the stick to sweep upwards out of the Crab Creek Valley. It would have been a thrill of sheer power, with a roaring 12 cylinder engine just behind his seat, one of the most muscular machines in the world. At the time, nobody knew why it happened, but pilots had for years reported that the P-39 would sometimes spin out of control. As Stroud gained altitude and shot eastwards along the northern flank of Saddle Mountain it happened to him. Stroud may have been knocked unconscious by inertia forcing the blood out of his brain. We can only hope that was the case. His plane plummeted in a tight spiral known as a Stall/Spin, exploding against the face of Saddle Mountain in a huge fireball. A seared patch of hillside, roughly the shape of Alaska, was branded into the sagebrush for at least the next forty years. Today you’d have to know where to look.
When I first heard his story in grade school, the pilot had no name and the story was told as if such an accident were unusual. It was one of the legacy tales that made my hometown seem special. But when I began to research that incident for this article I discovered something astounding. Stroud’s death was only one of 123 accidents involving P-39s from two Army Air Force Base Units located in Moses Lake and Ephrata that were training fighter pilots that summer 1944. All of these incidents occurred in only about five months, from late April to late August, 1944 (except one, which took place the following January). Continue reading
Posted in Airplanes, Columbia Basin, Computer, Crab Creek, Death, Disaster, Education, Family History, History, Media, Saddle Mountain, Search Engine, Washington, World War II
Tagged 357th Fighter Group, Airacobra, Army, Aviation Archaeology, B-17, Bell, Beverly, Canada, Central Washington, Columbia River, Crab Creek, Danielsons, Eastern Washington, Ellensburg, England, Ephrata Army Air Field, Hamilton Army Air Field, Harvey J. Christensen, Highway 26, History, James A. Crunk, Leonard E. Parsons, Lockheed, Lt. Col. Edward S. Chickering, Lutacaga Elementary School, Moses Lake, Moses Lake Army Air Base, Othello, P-38, P-39Q, Pearl Harbor, Quincy, Road B SE, Robert M. Pickerall, Royal City, Saddle Mountain, Second World War, Soviet Union, Stanley L. Stroud, T-33A, US Air Force, USAAF, Warren E. Danielson, Washington State, Whiskey Creek, Wikipedia, Wilson Creek
A correspondent for the Reading, Pennsylvania, Eagle submitted the following tale of the great horse roundup on Saddle Mountain and Lower Crab Creek in 1906. I have transcribed the article directly from a photographic copy of the issue of July 26, 1906, page 4. I have not edited spelling or place names from the original document, so you’ll find a few interesting variations on today’s geography.
A 1971 view of Red Rock Canyon, near Lower Crab Creek. This canyon, which was dry before irrigation arrived, served as a natural corral in pioneer roundups. Today it is flooded and provides sportsmen with fishing opportunities.
The Reading Eagle, Thursday, July 26, 1906. Page 4
Rounding Up Wild Range Horses In the State of Washington.
Regarding the last big round-up of horses in Washington State, a correspondent writes that Eastern Washington has for long years been known as the home of the will range horse, and many are the markets of the Central and Eastern States to which these horses have been shipped. Now, with the encroachment of the farmer to till the soil, the day of range riding and horse raising on the open range is about to vanish.
The southern half of Douglass county has heretofore offered an inviting range for horses, and there are thousands still running at large there on the sandy stretches of bunch grass and the deep green sloughs of the canons.
The first realization of the necessity of a complete round-up became known when ranchers began to build homes around Moses Lake and over the top of Frenchman hills, clear south into the canon of Lower Crab Creek. Wire fences were being put up, and the danger of injury to the range horses became every day more threatening. Continue reading
Posted in Columbia Basin, Crab Creek, Education, History, Irrigation, Native Americans, Saddle Mountain, Washington
Tagged Arabian stallions, Ben Hutchinson, Columbia River, Douglas County, Ephrata, Frenchman Hill, horsemen, Horses, Lower Crab Creek, Moses Lake, Native Americans, Pennsylvania, Reading, Red Rock Canyon, Saddle Mountain, Thomas Burgen, Washington State
The railroad tracks at Corfu, looking west. The photograph probably dates from around 1934
I did a Google search for Ben Hutchinson recently, and found out that he’s a sports figure of some repute in Europe. This must be a mistake, or I’m way out of touch with sports…which, come to think of it, I am! The man I’m thinking of passed on years ago.
I was a small boy when I first heard about Ben Hutchinson. My family liked to pile into a pickup or a station wagon and take a drive down what we called the Old Corfu Road, or in grandiose moments, the Old Corfu Highway. Along the way we would pass by the rear of the old Danielson Ranch near the banks of Crab Creek. My dad’s abandoned Model T truck was visible as a hunk of rusted machinery sticking up out of the sagebrush. Continue reading
Posted in Columbia Basin, Crab Creek, Education, Family History, Genealogy and Family History, History, Saddle Mountain, Washington
Tagged Adams County, Ben Hutchinson, Big Bend Country, British Columbia, California, Cape Horn, Columbia Plateau, Corfu, Cow Creek, Crab Creek, Dakotas, Douglas County, Ephrata, Fort Colville, Fraser River, George Lucas, Grant County, Grant County Historical Society, Hutchinson Lake, Illinois, Iowa, Kamloops, Kansas, Las Vegas, Lind, Marengo, Moses Lake, Mullan Road, Native Americans, New Mexico, Nez Perces, Northern Idaho, Oakesdale, Old Corfu Highway, Oregon, Oregon Trail, Paha, Palouse, Panama, Pleasant Valley Cemetery, R. J. Neergaard, Railroads, Ritzville, Robert M. Hutchinson, Saddle Mountain, Sam Hutchinson, San Francisco, San Jose, Sheep Springs, Spokane, St. Louis's College, St. Mary's College, Sunnyside, Victoria, Walla Walla, Washington, Yakima, Yakima County
Lower Crab Creek provided water. In Eastern Washington, that was a godsend. Temperatures on the Columbia Plateau routinely soar to over 100 degrees Fahrenheit in the summertime, and rain is scarce. Cleaning irrigation ditches with a shovel west of Othello as a boy, many were the prayers I sent for even one scanty cloud to shield me from the overbearing sun.
The Sinkiuse Indians who lived there before me probably shared my distaste for the relentless sun. But they didn’t have the benefit of a well of cold water I could retire to, an air conditioner that cooled the house when I took a break. They were stuck with the weather the way it was: hot in the summertime, cold in the winter. They took a more basic approach to living on the Columbia Plateau: they stuck close to water, or if that weren’t possible, they found the shortest route from one water hole to the next.
Over centuries of migration and travel, humans developed routes that guided them along the most direct lines of travel from one pool or stream of potable water to the next. Continue reading
Posted in Anthropology, Archaeology, Books, Columbia Basin, Computer, Crab Creek, Family History, Hiking, History, Horses, Ice Age flood, Native Americans, Railroads, Saddle Mountain, Washington, World War II
Tagged Andrew Jackson Splawn, Anthropology, Archaeology, Astor Company, Ben Hutchinson, Beverly, Bridge, British Columbia, Bunchgrass, Burke Museum, Canada, Cariboo Trail, Celilo Falls, Central Washington, Cheat Grass, Chief Joseph, Chief Moses, Chinese, Columbia National Wildlife Refuge, Columbia Plateau, Columbia River, Colville Reservation, Corfu, Corfu Slide, Corfu Switchback, Cow Creek, Coyote Rapids, Crab Creek, Culture, Desert, Eastern Washington, Ellensburg, Environment, Family, Family History, Ferry, Frenchman Hill, Grand Coulee, Highway 26, History, Horses, Hutchinson's Hill, Ice Age, Ice Cave, Immigration, Indians, Kamiakin, Low Gap, Manashtash Ridge, Milwaukee Road, Missoula Flood, Model T, Moses Lake, Mount Adams, Nature, Nez Perce, Okanogan, Oregon, Othello, Perkins Murders, Plateau Indians, Quincy, Railroads, Ranchers, Rattlesnake Springs, Ross Cox, Rustlers, Saddle Gap, Saddle Mountain, Sagebrush, Sam Hutchinson, Seattle, Second World War, Sheriff, Similkameen, Sinkiuse, Taunton, Trails, Vantage, Wahluke, Wanapum, Warden, Washington, Washington State, Washington State Archives, Wenatchee, White Bluffs, World War II, Yakima, Yakima County, Yakima River
Elmquists and Danielsons near Seattle, ca. 1914 Oscar F. Danielson holds baby Walter, front right. Edla stands near him, wearing the dark skirt.
In an earlier post to this blog (Illegal Immigrants) I introduced my grandfather, Oscar Fritiof Danielson. In this entry, I will sketch out the history of his farm on Lower Crab Creek. But first, a little about his background.
Oscar was born in a small town called Slatthog in southern Sweden in April 1885. A number of his brothers seem to have left the area, and Oscar followed. His arrival in America is shrouded in mystery. I found what appears to be his name on the 1910 census, as a boarder in a lumber camp at Avondale in King County. He is listed as a lumber worker, 29 years old. Continue reading
Posted in Columbia Basin, Crab Creek, Family History, Genealogy and Family History, History, Immigration, Irrigation, Native Americans, Natural Disaster, Railroads, Saddle Mountain, Sweden, Washington
Tagged Angermanland, Burke Museum, Canada, Census, Columbia National Wildlife Refuge, Columbia River, Corfu, Crab Creek, Dam, Desert, Eastern Washington, Family, Family History, Flood, Grant County, Halifax, Highway 26, History, Homestead, Immigration, Irrigation, King County, Liverpool, Milwaukee Road, Moses Lake, Okanogan, Othello, Plateau Indians, Renton, Royal City, Saddle Mountain, Sahaptian, Seattle, Sulk-talthscosum, Sweden, Taunton, Wanapum, Washington, Yakima Valley
Farmers and ranchers and their families mingled with promoters and dignitaries to hear about the progress being made. From the top of the mountain they gazed north on the desert lands that Grand Coulee Dam would make into a garden.
They gathered on top of Saddle Mountain in the heat of August, 1927, on a patch of sand and basalt at the top of the cliffs that form the western edge of the landmark that gave the mountain its name. Every car and truck that arrived ground the powdery soil in the road into a finer dust that hung in billows over the hillside before drifting slowly away. As they arrived, the cars were directed to a makeshift parking lot, a vacant hillside spotted with small sagebrush. But the passengers were dressed in their finest clothes, as if coming to a wedding. And in a sense, they were.
The State of Washington would look a lot different today if Grand Coulee Dam hadn’t been built…something that probably couldn’t happen today. My purpose here isn’t to debate whether or not it was right to so dramatically alter the environment of the Eastern Washington desert (indeed, because my family has been so closely tied to the enterprise, I’m not exactly sure how I feel about it). To get a brief history of the dam, you can find this excellent, pretty well balanced, article on HistoryLink.org.
It’s hard to imagine what the farmers who attended that picnic on Saddle Mountain were feeling. Over the years many of them had watched their neighbors and friends give up or fail on the lands they had invested so many years of labor to develop. Continue reading
Posted in Crab Creek, Family History, History, Saddle Mountain, Washington
Tagged Albeni Falls, Army Corps of Engineers, Atomic Bomb, Butler Report, C. C. Dill, Canals, Central Washington, Cold War, Columbia Basin, Crab Creek, Danielson, Desert, Drumheller Scablands, Eastern Washington, Environment, Family, Family History, Flood, Grand Coulee Dam, Hanford Reservation, Hawaii, History, Homestead, Ice Age, Idaho, Irrigation, James O'Sullivan, Lower Crab Creek, Moses Lake, NORAD, O'Sullivan Dam, Othello, Pacific Ocean, Palouse Hills, Plutonium, Politics, Potholes Reservoir, Quincy Basin, Railroads, Saddle Mountain, Seattle, Second World War, Settlers, Triton missiles, Washington State, Water, Weather, Wheat, World War II, Yakima River